Saturday, December 31, 2011

What was the metropolitan aesthetic of Blitzed London as represented in literature?

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What was the metropolitan aesthetic of Blitzed London as represented in literature?


The ‘Big City’ is often seen as displaying a number of key characteristics. These include the drumbeat regularity and monotony of everyday life, the cold concrete indifference of people and buildings and the sense of alienation these factors can bring about. A bombed ‘Big City’, having been stripped of its earlier facade both in terms of the ones its inhabitants carry and in material terms must look towards redefining and rebuilding itself and in constructing a new ideology or reaffirming an old one. This essay will look primarily at two works written during the Blitz of London, ‘The End of The Affair’ by Graham Greene, published in 151 and Elizabeth Bowen’s ‘The Heat of the Day’, first published in 148. The essay will seek to examine how the novels may represent this idea of a new metropolitan aesthetic or a poetic vision of the city arising out of its destruction.


The metropolis is defined [Collins Dictionary] as ‘the main city of a country or region’. Bier and Finlay describe London as having turned into a true ‘metropolis’ between 1550-1700 when it suffered a fourfold expansion in terms of population growth and area. The metropolitan aesthetic can be broadly defined on one level as referring to the physical appearance of a city and the presence of artwork, statues, parks and those things that exist to ‘speak for’ the city in terms of its history, its politics and its status as a cultural centre. On another level, the aesthetic lives in the imagination and an idealised sense of things and feeds on inspiration from existing works of beauty. Buried in the Blitz, which started on the 7th of September 140 thus, was more than the present day lives and livelihood of a population, but history and as Angus Calder argues in the ‘Myth of the Blitz’, an ideological structure. It was the seat of a nation’s identity, albeit one that was seeped at the time in political and nationalist myths about the sense of British ascendancy especially over its colonies.


Wartime serves as a good medium for a novelist to tell a story as the everyday life of the civilian population may be seen as heroic in itself. Civilians may be either heroes or spies and betrayers in peacetime, but in war the stakes are higher and so dramatisation of the civilian spirit, one that is unique as it emerges in unique circumstances is one that is much documented and dramatised. Peter Ackroyd in his ‘Biography’ of London speaks of London’s innate theatricality remarking that ‘ there was never any conflict in the city’s history to match the drama of the Second World War. One reason for dramatising it, as Calder argues, is for propagandist purposes, that is, to create an ideal of what things were ‘really like’ in terms of a strong sense of community and people coming to the aid of one another, the ‘British spirit’. Humphrey Jennings in his films portrays a celebratory vision of Britain. In his films ‘Listen to Britain’ and ‘Fires Were Started’ the city is as orderly a place as is possible and people are making the best of things, as is evident in the fairly un-technological but good spirited Auxiliary Fire Service. Jennings’ perspective was influenced perhaps, not just by what appears to be a genuine desire to represent Britain as he saw it, but also perhaps in some way to guard against the sense that the collapse of the material structures of ideology would not in any way bring about moral decline.


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The desire to represent the situation of the Blitz in poetic terms was something that Graham Greene desired to do, stating that in some ways the war made a poet out of everyone. Greene’s view, in the thick of the bombing in 140 was that ‘life had become just and poetic…we needn’t feel pity for any of the innocent and as for the guilty, we know in our hearts that they will live just as long as we do and no longer’. In Greene’s view there is no simple dividing line between the innocent and the guilty and in both novels there is the presence of the lurking ‘enemy within’. In Greene’s novel, these are inner demons and in Bowen’s it is the one who is closest to you who betrays you. Both novels play on the heightened sense of fear in the city-of outside enemies and more strongly fear of the self as with the bombings came a sense of displacement, a loss of identity that both was frightening and liberating. In Bowen’s novel Stella meets her lover in the ‘heady autumn’, ‘never had any season been more felt; one bought the poetic sense of it with the sense of death’. It is as though the bombing catalyses a kind of heightened awareness in the inhabitants of the city. Combined with the sleeplessness of the people, Bowen’s use of impressionistic descriptive force brings our attention to this kind of ‘felt life’, different from that of peacetime, ‘for as the dust settled.. you felt more and more called on to observe the daytime’.


City life was beginning to be seen in the period as unnatural, as in T.S Eliot’s ‘The Wasteland’ it was the ‘unreal city’. During war, this sense was intensified and the existing aesthetic took on an apocalyptic tone. Peter Ackroyd points towards comparisons that were made between London and Pompeii during the time, and Bowen talks of the ghostly sense of the remains of the ‘torn of senses’, and eeriness of presences so suddenly dispatched. The natural world, often seen as being encroached upon by the growing concrete entities, now suffered collapse and a further disfiguration of a nature that was previously either obscured or manicured to suit the necessities of the growing metropolis. The natural world, encompassing the sky, night and day and the air, are all suffused with the scars of war and weaponry. For instance, the air is the cause of an ‘acridity’ in Bowen’s novel and the ash that was historically present covering everything, is gestured towards in Greene’s writing as Bendrix remarks to Henry that he has some ash on his sleeve when he is trying to burn the detective’s card. This echoes Eliot’s ‘Little Gidding’ ‘ash on an old man’s sleeve Is all the ash burnt roses leave’. In the sky, Stella observes is a ‘slow, stealthy massing of clouds’ and streets are ‘extinct’ and ‘mute’. It is as though the sense of transparency between people that emerges, something Bowen mentions in her novel, ‘the wall between the living and the living became less solid…in that September transparency, people became transparent’ is the same transparency between the earth and clouds and people. There is a unity in destruction that is more comprehensible than an enforced ‘man-made’ and therefore, inevitably short lived sense of order.


Fire and the ashes of the hallmarks of ‘civilisation’ carry their own sense of horror and release. The burning and extinction both carry connotations of extermination and a cathartic purification. 0,000 Londoners were said to have been killed, and there is perhaps a sense of returning to a pagan or mythic idea of the basic components of life, that is, air, water, fire and earth. The bomb that injures Bendrix serves to create this sense of a new birth; Sarah believes he has been given a new lease of life that she must pay for. The role of God is pervasive in both novels as it is not easy to place responsibility squarely on anyone’s shoulders, and so the ‘ideal’, whose role, Pater had prophesised would shrink with the passage of time, is re-evoked in the whole drama of destruction, the ill temper of the Gods, and the lack of ‘reasonable’ explanations. Fire also has connotations of a Christian hell. The barbarism seen in the butchery of ‘civilised’ populations for ‘the sake of civilisation’ seems to suggest that we create, in a Sartrean sense, our own hells as well as being each other’s. Both novel’s say a great deal about beginnings and ends. Greene starts at the end of one story and so at the beginning of another, whilst Bowen comments when Harrison has come to see Stella a second time that ‘ the beginning, in which was conceived the end, could not help but shape the middle part of the story’. Both novels raise the question of the nature of the aesthetic pleasure involved in creating and being a part of creation through reading of it and so making it your own. The slightly misshapen or awkward beginnings and endings raise the sense that we cannot see our own end, and do not know the narrative of our own lives. The narrative of the Blitz is also testament to the enduring qualities of the human spirit and in Bowen’s ending there is birth of a baby, perhaps a positive sign for the value of human tenacity. Civilisation however, does not always outstay its makers illustrating the fundamental uncertainty of any premise of life, or promise of it following a set example.


Many of the characters in both novels possess self-destructive qualities. Bendrix practices in perfecting the art of negativity revelling in what he sees as the purity of his hatred. Sarah commits herself to a slow suicide by walking in the rain and refusing the doctor. Robert too, is not astute enough to protect himself adequately in the event of his capture, which is a strong likelihood in the prevailing climate of suspicion. Freud called this the death instinct or the desire towards a kind of self-sabotage. Death does not come to all the characters; in the words of Oscar Wilde though all men kill the thing they love ‘all men do not die’. Similarly, the stabbing of the picture in ‘Dorian Gray’ represents the death of surface ‘personality’ or persona or in the established order of things. In this there is a sense of the ultimate aesthetic goal that is, the final search for truth or purity.


In Greene, wartime is in some way right. Bendrix and Sarah both dislike peacetime, not merely because they cannot meet but because in some way it does not correspond to the inner battles that rage within them. The wartime ‘aesthetic’ or the regular appearance of bombs and the experience of houses that once were is perhaps something that the imagination and the violence of human feeling can grasp. The unfamiliar and somewhat unexpected disfigurement of ‘reality’ becomes like that of the imagination as much lives on in our imaginations that may have no direct correlation to actuality. The mind, in this way, becomes overtly the only place where you can live, and in many ways, boundaries between reality and the imagined disappear and fictions become the solutions. In Greene, Sarah tells herself the story of the miracle to solve a long-term dilemma about religion and its place in her life. Perhaps this is why Robert too takes on a double role. On the other hand, perhaps this human trait is made easier in wartime as Bendrix says to Sarah of his last book [which Sarah says she dislikes], “it was a struggle to write at all just then-peace coming…’And I may as well have said peace going”.


Peter Ackroyd suggests that the destruction of the city in the minds of Londoners was never a complete one. He quotes Stephen Spender talking of the ‘dark immensity of London’ as if it was that that was a security against complete annihilation. What is destroyed in the novels is the sense of the assurance of a timely benevolence of fate or the hand of God. It may be argued that it was with the destruction of the larger mythic structures [Angus Calder points to the exception, a glimmering St Paul’s the symbol of high Anglicanism and high Art that survived the bombing] that drew people to localising their observations and feelings, aesthetic or otherwise. Bowen speaks of the ‘dazzling silent lakes’ in Parks that had been shut ‘because of time bombs’, the appreciation for daylight and finding beauty in the ‘phantasmagoric’, a word that Bowen uses repeatedly to describe the feel of the unreality of London.


Locality is also an important factor in Greene, as all the drama takes place around Clapham Common. This centre to the story does act as a contrast to the whirling questions that surround their relationship and the immensity of a war that spans all of Europe. Stella begins to feel that it is ‘occupied Europe that occupies London’ as foreign-ness becomes just the same as the incomprehensibleness of the present situation. The locality of Stella’s residence in Weymouth Street is also significant. She cannot create her own surroundings as she likes and must live with someone else’s aesthetic taste, ‘where Regency goddesses hang on the walls’, and the sofas are covered by ‘feather etched chintz’. This is an apartment where ‘every mood’ of London’s weather is reflected on the white walls and the city encroaches inside on her disrupting any sense of ownership, aesthetic or otherwise. People, it seemed, could claim the locality to be their own if they could not claim anything else as it gave them a sense of identity.


Time, during the Blitz, may well have been measured by the length of time between bombs, but more likely as suggested by the novels it was between the last time you saw a loved one and when you would see them again. Time, in Bendrix’ world is entangled with Sarah, ‘in his blackness’ he says, ‘one can no more tell the days than a blind man can tell the light’. He marks the years by the strength of his hatred and not his material environment. He comments that his main problem with his novels is ‘how to disinter the human character from the heavy scene-the daily newspaper, the daily meal’. This too, it may be argued, is Greene’s problem, that is, to represent a narrative of a character who lives out of pace with his environment and who’s momentum, other than being bombed, is dictated entirely by his own strength of feeling. His feeling is not dictated by British victory or defeat, ‘there was something infinitely more important to me than war…the end of love’. ‘Every love has a poetic relevance of its own’, says Bowen, and it is this elevated state of being that is emphasised in the novel, a ticking internal narrative, greater than that of falling buildings, or blasted stairways. The uncertainty and strategy involved in human relationships are almost warlike, and Bowen suggests the topographical connection with the city when she speaks of war moving finally during the receding bombings, ‘from the horizon to the map’


Both novels use the idea of the destruction of moments to introduce new ways of looking at time. This relates our own sense of who we are to our material environments and the structures of life that we take for granted contain meaning or established truth. The structure of linear time is one of these things, as is our own refusal to seriously acknowledge or consider our own mortality for as long as we are alive and healthy. Bowen seems to examine this sense in her description of the ‘demolition of an entire moment’ when ‘four walls of in here yawped in then bellied out’. In George Dickies’ essay ‘How Buildings Mean’, he says that ‘ A building alters physical environment as a work of art…it can give new insight, advance understanding, participate in our continual remaking of the world’. It could be said that despite the sense that we may constantly remake our world, making things our own through our impressions of them and the individuality of our voices, it is only in the destruction of established structures of meaning that most strongly affects perspective. Bowen uses the modernist technique of juxtaposition of impressions like a shifting focus of a camera lens to draw our attention and give impact to the passage, mimicking the impact of the action. She says ‘bottles danced on glass’, ‘the barrage, banged, coughed, retched…a distortion ran through view’. Similarly the pace of the Greene narrative, the alternative diary entries with Bendrix’ own highly personal voice, gives a momentum comparable to the jerky narrative of the war. The uncertainty, the stopping and starting, are all like the volatile affair itself, and all like the pace of modern life and the ‘face’ it appears to adopt.


Bowen’s narrative is slower and with Jamesian subtlety the characters shy away from saying what they really think, veiling the narrative in the mystery of human contact. Each narrative opens immersed in wartime London, and so is a cold plunge into the climate of the time. This is suggestive of the idea that life happens before there is time to comprehend the relevance of it, that the aesthetic is fleeting and transitory and like in Bowen, is caught in the snatches of daytime and light.


The metropolis is humanity functioning in mutual co-operation and largely assenting terms of ideas about culture and civilisation. It is self conscious in the representation of these ideas into solid blocks of meaning, in architecture and art, law and even modes of transport. The structure of the city is thus directly representative of the collective of ideas and philosophies about the nature of the human condition. The aesthetic of the city both reflect and cater to this. The aesthetic consideration is nearly always seen as one that needs to be merged with the practical or at least to be subordinate to it. Thus the city may be seen as a body that builds and rebuilds itself, adapting and being adapted upon. The shock of the Blitz for the capital and for the nation served to undermine much of this ideology and so forcibly created a need, it may be argued, for regeneration and reconsideration. It is difficult to merge aestheticism with ideology, political or moral or both, and cities try to succeed in this regard without compromising either previous traditions or anticipated trends. On one level the blitz collapsed civilisation but arguably it was found again in stalwart civilian attitudes.


Subjectivity is central to the nature of the metropolitan aesthetic as people are permitted to like or dislike what they choose as they pass it on busy streets. The presence of the object however, usually forms a frame of reference for a larger cultural context of the area or locality. The object of art criticism, Arnold argued, was to see the object for itself whilst James argued that ‘humanity was immense and reality had a myriad forms’, emphasising the value of the impression things gave you and not just their physical form. According to Kant’s theories it is a priori knowledge, or that which has not come from experience, that lends itself to the creation of art. Whatever the true nature and source of the aesthetic impulse , the function of the metropolitan aesthetic appears to be a social one. It binds histories and cultural threads together to form an at least, partially cohesive sense of what it may mean to be a part of a civilisation or a particular nationality. Civilisation in terms of its aesthetic produce once unbound, blitz literature appears to tell us, does not cause the whole structure to collapse, but that experience may be intensified.


Matthew Arnold wrote that he feared that we were headed as a civilisation into the ‘drab of the earnest, prosaic, practical, austerely literal future’. The blitz, I do not believe, was a happy time despite the light headed gaiety of the stayers-on in London, but it was not, literal, prosaic or as earnest as artists like Jennings may have wished to portray. Greene in his epigraph to the novel opens with a quote by Leon Bloy who tells us that ‘man has places in his heart which do not yet exist, but suffering comes into them so that they may have existence’. Suffering and cleansing appear to be a dual force in Greene’s writing. Destruction also appears to be an opportunity to make alive again, what may have died or never even had birth before it had been blitzed. It is, it may be argued, the finding of the individual voice in a situation such as the blitz that gives the aesthetic representations of the experience authenticity and originality as both Greene and Bowen’s characters are part of a transitory world, a very temporary phase as by the end of both novels there is the sense that civilisation changed, must reassert itself.


Bibliography


Essays in Criticism I-Matthew Arnold


The Art of Fiction-Henry James


Critique of Pure Reason-Kant


Elizabeth Bowen-An Estimation-Hermione Lee


Interview with Graham Greene [168]-V. S Naipaul


Graham Greene-edited by Jeffrey Meyers


The Myth of the Blitz-Angus Calder


London-The Biography-Peter Ackroyd


Living through the Blitz-Tom Harrison


Introductory Readings in Aesthetics-John Hospers


Literary Impressionism and Modernist Aesthetics-Matz


The Making of the Metropolis London 1500-1700-edited by Beier and Finley


Aesthetics-A critical Anthology-George Dickie, Rees Sclafani and Ronald Roblin


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Ethical Decision-Making

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The purpose of this paper is to define and discuss the elements of an ethically defensible decision. I am to answer the questions what are the ground rules?, what could they be?, what should they be?, what are the ethical implications of the decision?, and how might the decision change the ground rules?


In the textbook “Management Leading People and Organizations in the 1st Century” tells us that ethics refers to “the principle of conduct governing an individual or a group, and specifically to the standards you use to decide what your conduct should be” (pg. 70). In online resource “Holistic Education Network” tells us that ethical decision making refers to “the process of evaluating and choosing among alternatives in a manner consistent with ethical principles” (http//www.neat.tas.edu.au/hent/world/rss/files/ethics/ethical_decision.htm).


Ethical decision making is weighing the options of right verse wrong. The ground rules for making ethical decisions, are “trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship. The Six Pillars of Character are ethical values to guide our choices. The standards of conduct that arise out of those values constitute the ground rules of ethics. The Six Pillars are the basis of ethically defensible decisions and the foundation of well-lived lives.” (http//www.josephsoninstiture.org/MED/MED-sixpillars.htm).


Ethical decision making could be our beliefs, our values, our attitude, our actions, our choices and our words. What we say we value and what our actions say we value is a matter of integrity, the foundation that we build our beliefs upon. It’s what we say or do that determines the outcome of the decision we make, and the decision we make will determine the foundation we live by. Something may be legal, but not be right. Ethical decision-making is more than our beliefs and values. “It’s evaluating complex, ambiguous and incomplete facts, and the skill to implement ethical decisions effectively” (http//www.josephsoninstitute.org/MED/MED-1makingsense.htm).


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What ethical decision should be is first, what are the issues? Depending on what the issue might be, will determine the conclusion of the decision. Second, what are the reasons? Is the reasons ethical or unethical. Third, what are the value conflicts and assumptions? Forth, what are the descriptive assumptions? And finally, are there any fallacies in the reasoning? Also, ethical decisions should be based on honesty, respect, integrity, and accountability.


What are the ethical implications of the decision? The ethical implications of lets say Enron, is that they can’t be trusted, there’s no respect for the company anymore. Because they did business in an unethical way. The ethical implications of


How might the decision change the ground rules? The decision might change the ground rules, simply because they do not have the character traits, the “Six Pillars of Character” to think ethically. Enron did not have any ethical values for themselves, let alone for their customers. Everything they did when it came to the business, was unethical. It was wrong for Enron to take peoples money they way the did.








References


Browne, M.N. & Keeley S.K. (000). Critical Thinking Asking the Right Question


(5th ed.). Boston Pearson Custom Printing.





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Friday, December 30, 2011

Nature of Logic and Perception

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Nature of Logic and Perception


The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines logic as “the science of reasoning, proof, thinking, or influence.” Critical thinking as described by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero, ‘is the process by which we test claims and arguments and determine which have merit and which do not.” (Beyond Feelings, 6) At one level, I think we all know what critical thinking means�it means good thinking as opposed to illogical, irrational thinking. Since critical thinking is not necessarily being “critical” and negative I think it would be appropriate or more accurate to call it evaluative thinking. The results of the evaluation can range from acceptance to rejection, positive, negative, or anything in between. As I understand it the essence of critical thinking is logic and that we use very little explicit logic in ordinary life. I understand that the basic principles of logic use in evaluating arguments are as follows (1) Premises are either true or false (incorrect or correct); () Conclusions are either valid or invalid, () Correct premises plus valid reasoning equal a sound argument ,and lastly () An incorrect premise or invalid reasoning makes an argument unsound.


Perceptual process


I think most of my thinking at the ordinary level is based on perception, language , and information. At the most there is one logic step If this than that. I think most thinking takes place in the perceptual stage. These are the questions that arise, How much do I take in? and How do I look at things? This perception is based on habits of perceptions and what I hear, what I read and how I express myself. I understand that we do not need to use much explicit logic because we have already built the logic into our language. For example, killing is ‘bad’ unless justified by war or self-dense. I know that with investment decisions I followed what was recommended and what my friends were doing and then rationalized it with the following rationalization Everyone does this and the stock rises for a while and when the market eventually gets a severe correction I rationalize that as well. This rationalization is based on information�not all-available information but a selection that fits what I was inclined to do anyway.


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I think that logic can be used to reinforce perceptions (and prejudices) but logic and argument will not change perceptions. Perception is more than sensing, it is processing, reacting, and interpreting. Faith Bryne describes perception as, “detecting the nature of both outer and inner worlds. In many cases, it also means responding in some way, either consciously or unconsciously.” (Perception, 57) Perception is the way we look at things and I think processing is what we do with that perception. In my view if we take processing for granted then perception becomes even more important, because the way we look at a situation will determine what we can do about it.


Perceptual Blocks


The influences (family, teachers, religion, race, environment, and economic level) that have shaped or conditioned my identity by instilling values, beliefs, viewpoints or attitudes that I have accepted without challenge serves as a perceptual block. The situations in which I am less of an individual because of these influences occur when I refuse to understand someone else’s opinion or look for other points of view because of something I have been conditioned to believe is true. I am not very consistent in ensuring that my opinions are informed. Often times I have not taken careful consideration of the evidence and have treated opinions as facts especially if I have expressed it to the point that I have begun to believe it as truth. At times, in what matters most I am inclined to assume too much and take too much for granted. I feel the strongest urge to conform when someone is a positive role model and conforming to this type of behavior I believe adds value. However, a situation in which this conformist tendency has interfered with my judgment is following others because it seemed the lesser of two evils. All to often at the workplace this is how some decisions are made just to close an issue that ultimately will recycle.


I think I seek to confirm my biases rather than control them in seeking evidence that only confirms my bias and not questioning or seeking the opposing point of view. Additionally, I tend to jump or make hasty conclusions more often than I would like. This occurs more so in the area of personal relationships.


Lessons Learned


I have learned that there are some errors and bad habits that can lead to shallow or uncritical decisions instead of careful judgments. I have gained the most insight from the following errors and bad habits, which are Ethnocentricity, Resistance to change (habits), Conformity, Face saving (ego), Rationalization, Stereotyping, Faulty common sense, Oversimplification, Hasty conclusions, and Unwarranted assumptions.


I think the real key to each the of errors and habits mentioned above is my being conscious of the tendency to do them and to get into the habit of applying and practicing the different ways or approaches to avoiding the blockers to critical thinking. This will be an ongoing process if I am to be in control of my own beliefs, and to somehow gain an understanding of the truth, then I must know what good reasoning is, and be aware of the ways in which my reasoning (and that of others) can go astray.


References


Ruggerio, V.R. (001). Beyond feelings a guide to critical thinking (6th ed., University of Phoenix). Boston McGraw-Hill. (p-1-140)


Brynie, Faith Hickman. (001). Perception. Blackbirch Press, Inc. (p 57)


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A Spider Upon Catching a Fly

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JESUS, THE MESSIAH IN BIRTH, WORK, AND DEATH


Because he was not a king or a military leader or a descendent of King David and because he allegedly failed to achieve immediate world peace , it is a common belief among those of the Jewish faith that Jesus was not the Messiah . However, through his birth, his works and miracles, and his death, as described by Luke, Jesus exemplified Christian ideals of the Messiah and fulfilled over 0 prophesies specifically contained in the Jewish Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible, that were written hundreds, and is some cases, thousands of years before Jesus was even born, which undoubtedly proves that Jesus, was the Messiah�the “envoy of God,” the Son of God, Savior, Christ�of both the Christian and the Jewish faiths.


What was prophesized in the Old Testament concerning the birth of the Messiah, was fulfilled by Jesus. For example, according to prophesies, “Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel,” the Messiah would be born of the seed of a virgin woman. Fulfilling this prophesy, Jesus was born to the virgin, Mary, whom “the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee… and came in unto her and said, Hail, thou art highly favoured… behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David.” It was also prophesied in the book of Genesis that the Messiah would be a descendant of Isaac and Jacob. Jesus fulfilled this prophesy because he (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli, Which was the son of Jacob, which was the son of Isaac, which was the son of Abraham, which was the son of Thara, which was the son of Nachor…” Furthermore, it was prophesied, by the great prophet Micah, that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem, “But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall He come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.” Fulfilling this prophesy as well, Jesus’ birth took place “unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.” Thus, in his birth, Jesus had already fulfilled the prophecies, and is therefore undeniably the Messiah.


Although Jesus’ miraculous birth sufficiently evidences him as the Messiah, Jesus’ works and miracles further verifies it and emphasizes his greatness. According to the prophesies of the Old Testament, the Messiah would be “a prophet among the brethren,” anointed with the Holy Spirit , and teacher of parables. Fulfilling these prophesies, Jesus prophesized about his Father and Heaven and was referred to as being a “great prophet” who has “risen” among the people. Also, teaching at synagogues, as described in Luke 415, speaking confidently about the book of the prophet Esaias to the poor, preaching deliverance to captives, and preaching the acceptable year of the Lord, Jesus was clearly anointed with the Holy Spirit who, according to Christian belief, is the spirit that gives one the ability to do such great acts. Furthermore, the preacher of 1 parables (18 of which are thoroughly discussed by Luke), Jesus clearly was the teacher of parables. In addition to his great works that have fulfilled the prophesies of the Old Testament, Jesus’ miracles evidence his superiority and genuinely reflect him as the Messiah. From his miracle of making water made into wine at Cana, in which Jesus miraculously turns water in six stone jars of water into wine at a wedding, to his miracle of his appearance to seven apostles and aiding them in catching fish in a fishless sea after his resurrection , Jesus expressed a power nonexistent to man�a power which evidences him as God-sent and as the Messiah.


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Evidently the Messiah of both Jewish and Christian faiths, Jesus exemplified the Messiah and fulfilled the prophesies of the Old Testament in his death. According to the prophesies of the Old Testament, the Messiah would be betrayed by a friend�His own “familiar friend, in whom [He] trusted, which did eat of [His] bread, hath lifted up his heal against [Him]” �sold for thirty pieces of silver�“So they weighed for his price thirty pieces of silver” �and would be pierced in the hands and feet�“for dogs have compassed [Him] the assembly of the wicked has induced [Him] they pierced [His] hands and feet” �much as Jesus was betrayed by his apostle, Judah, for thirty pieces of silver, and was, in Calvary, crucified “one on the right hand, and the other on the left.” More so, it was declared in the prophesies that the Messiah would be resurrected�He “shall not die, but live and declare the works of the Lord” and be “raised so that [He] may requite” the people, as was fulfilled by Jesus as described in Acts of “the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption” and that “God hath fulfilled the same… he hath raised up Jesus again” and will “rise from the dead the third day.” Furthermore, the ascension of the Messiah was prophesized, “hast ascended on high, hast led captivity captive, hast received gifts for men…” and was fulfilled by Jesus’ own ascension in which, while he was beheld by his disciples, “was taken up and a cloud received him out of their site.” Thus, in death too, Jesus fulfilled the prophesies of the Messiah from the Old Testament, and is thus, the Messiah.


From his birth to his death, Jesus fulfilled hundreds of prophesies of the Messiah, written hundreds, and sometimes thousands of years before his time. Although evidence from Luke and his Acts of the Apostle provide more than enough evidence that Jesus is in fact the Messiah, many may argue that Jesus’ so-called “fulfillments” were “fictions” and are mere creations and exaggerations of the Gospels. However, apart from presenting an accurate record of Jesus in logical order, harmony between Luke and Acts and other books of the Bible as well as the Hebrew scriptures indicate the authenticity of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles. For example, twelve miracles of Jesus (from the cure of Peter’s mother to the healing of the ear of Malchus) and two parables (the Parable of the Sower and the Parable of the Tenants) that were discussed in Luke correlate with those in the other Gospels. More so,


As a result, many Jews have rethought Jesus’ position in traditional Jewish belief as being a prophet rather than the true Messiah.





Bible


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Thursday, December 29, 2011

testile industry

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Textile industry told to fix problems before quota axed


Evi Mariani, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta


The countrys inefficient textile and garment industry has been told to get its act together in order to survive tougher competition in the export market particularly when the global quota system is removed at the end of next year.


I think textile makers that are already competitive and efficient will not be affected too much by the quota elimination, Indonesian Textile Associations (API) head of international relations and foreign trade Sunjoto Tanudjaja told The Jakarta Post in a recent interview. However, those that rely heavily on the quota system will indeed face difficult times unless they tidy up their operations.


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The current system of quotas, imposed by the U.S., the European Union and Canada in the mid-170s against developing countries, mostly in Asia, will be removed as part of a World Trade Organization liberalization drive. This will allow efficient producers to dominate the worlds more than US$500 billion textile and garment market.


The quota system limits the amount that a producing country can export to the developed countries. In actual practice, it meant that efficient producers, from a country such as China for example, could only export a relatively small percentage of what it was capable of producing, thereby allowing other more inefficient countries to sell similar amounts to meet worldwide demand.


While some analysts said that efficient producers from China are set to gain most from the liberalization drive, there are concerns that textile makers from Indonesia which have been struggling with various problems like the lack of financing to upgrade old machinery and lingering labor conflict could face difficulties to win competition against more efficient regional neighbors. Textile and garments have been one of the main non-oil and gas export products. The sector also employs millions of people.


The government, however, has not shown a great deal of concern about the threat.


Ive been asked several times, Will our textile industry face a slump?, Minister of Industry and Trade Rini Soewandi said in a meeting with the government WTO negotiation team, last week.


I have always replied that there will never be a sunset in our textile industry as we are a country of 0 million people, how could the industry die? she wondered.


The director general of foreign trade at the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Sudar SA told the Post that the government had not yet formulated any special plans to help textile and garments makers deal with the tougher export competition.


Asked whether upgrading its machinery would help boost the efficiency and productivity of the textile sector, Sunjoto claimed that machinery was only a small part of the larger problem.


What is more important to be addressed first is fundamental issues like labor laws, cost structure, taxation laws and investment laws, he said. Once those matters are settled, we can talk about machinery and all.


He added that although the industry was ailing, the Indonesian textile industry still had an advantage in terms of its diversified products.


In an international seminar in Brussels three months ago, a presenter from Washington (in the U.S.) told the participants that in terms of diversified products Indonesia would rank number five after the quota elimination, he said.


He added that he felt optimistic that if the textile industry quickly resolved its fundamental problems, instead of being a loser, Indonesia would gain from the quota elimination.


Reports showed the textile industry absorbed about .5 million jobs. However, a government report showed there were 4 textile companies that went bankrupt last year, putting about 1,000 people out of work.


Before the late 10s economic crisis, Indonesia ranked number six in the world in terms of textile export value. But now, Indonesia in no longer in the top ten, Sunjoto said. We are 1th now.


.rm70 Export value of RIs textile and apparel makers (in million U.S. dollars)


No.Destination 18 1 000 001 00


country I Quota-relying ,18.7 ,0.4 ,755. ,615.0 ,00.


manufacturers


(total) 1. The U.S 1,71.6 1,766. ,06.0 ,06.7 1,80. . The EU 1,. 1,5.5 1,44. 1,05.4 1,17.6 . Canada 7. 80.4 7.4 10. 1.7 4. Norway 1. .4 .5 - -


II Non-quota 4,11.7 4,0.5 4,581.4 4,184.0 ,76.7


manufacturers


(total)


Source BPS


printer friendly





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report

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Dissertation proposal


Topic


The status of human resource management of Joint venture in China


Purpose


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To gather some successful experience of human resource management through analyze and criticize the status of Chinese the Joint venture


Introduction


China has been a member of WTO, therefore more and more foreign companies want to enter into the Chinese market. Joint venture will be one of the most efficiency entry methods. However as we know, not all the joint ventures are succeed in China. Their failures have many kinds of reasons. Here, I will talk about the human resource management in a successful joint venture and a failure joint venture to analyze and criticize the status of Joint Venture from the view of Human Resource Management (HRM) in China.


In China, we have an old words not afraid of a bad thing, be afraid of a bad person. Following the development of economy, people have realized the important of human resource management for an organization. As what Chris Hendry said, ¡°our human resources are our most important assets¡±(P). Because Chinese traditional culture and traditional business structures affect Chinese organization very deeply, its point enhances the difficulties of joint venture run in China. A very obvious internal conflict is presented in human resource management.


Methodology


I am planning to use both of the qualitative and quantitative methods. I will interview a manager in personnel department in a successful joint venture in China and hand out 50 questionnaires among different class employees. To read book, company report and journals and to reach information for the internet are the necessary way for my dissertation.








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Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Jazz Music's Parallel to Ralph Ellison

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Jazz Music’s Parallel to Ralph Ellison





Jazz, popular music of black origin, is a genre unique to America. It began as a social music, the natural response of the black population, especially in the Southern American states, to their situation , their sorrows and oppression, their hopes and aspirations. It is distinguished from all other genres of music by it’s characteristic rhythms, close harmonies and distinctive melodies, and the involvement of improvisation. The tone of jazz is low, and it revolves heavily around a central rhythm. However, improvisation that is more complex is taken off this base, and at some point, the pieces eventually come back to the central rhythm, the place where it originated. In Ralph Ellison’s first chapter, “Battle Royal,“ of Invisible Man, the reader travels through the story as if traveling through a jazz composition. The characters and plot of this story, parallel the rhythm, harmonies and melodies, and improvisations characteristic of a jazz composition. Ellison’s use of symbolic language and allegorical references in the story of the “Battle Royal,” parallels the history of jazz.


Ralph Ellison’s first chapter of Invisible Man introduces us to an African American man whose grandfather feels that he is a traitor for having lead a life based on a guiding principle of submissiveness in the face of the South’s enduring racist structure. We are left with a moral ambiguity because we never learn whom the grandfather feels he has betrayed. Did the grandfather feel that he betrayed himself, his family, or his entire race? Those whom the grandfather feels he has betrayed is left to our own interpretation, much like the ambiguous melodies of many jazz pieces. Jazz melodies are interpreted by each listener very differently. One may hear a jazz composition and feel sorrow in it while another person may interpret the melodies as frustration.


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Another ambiguity that is introduced by the grandfather are the last instructions that he gives his family. These ambiguous instructions are the central rhythm of the composition. The narrator’s grandfather directs his family to uphold two different identities good and obedient slaves on the exterior; on the inside however, they should be resentful of this façade that they must uphold so that they do not betray themselves. These instructions play an important role in giving the narrator a foundation upon which he can generate his own set of beliefs and morals. The narrator does agree with his grandfather in that he must be a good and submissive towards the white people, however, he believes that in doing so, he will earn respect and praise. The instructions of the grandfather are much like the fundamental rhythms in a jazz piece, and the narrator’s own beliefs that stem from that central rhythm are his improvisation. The improvisation that the narrator makes has it’s roots in his grandfather’s central rhythm that is the foundation for the composition.


The narrator’s involvement in the “Battle Royal” can be paralleled to the close harmonies of a jazz composition. In this “Battle Royal” the boys involved are blindfolded by the white men that are running this event. Without the ability to see, the boys fight chaotically amongst each other. In a jazz composition, the close harmonies sound like chaos. It is hard to tell one line of notes from the other very easily, however, jazz composers have knowledgeable control over the overlapping notes that are used in a piece in order to give the music it’s unique quality. We can say that the white men running this “Battle Royal” are the composers. They have full control over the chaos that they create. Not once did any of the boys in the “Battle Royal” try to hit one of the white men in the chaos, even though these boys probably could have, and then deem it an accident.


In the end, the narrator is given a briefcase and a scholarship the state college for Negroes. This was a way that the men, once again, exerted their power. The narrator may have felt that he had finally won his respect and praise, however, the reward that he is given was the men’s way of controlling his social advancement in their terms. In a jazz composition, the central rhythm controls the movement of the piece, as well the improvisation of a solo performer. The narrator paints himself as this solo performer who breaks off from the main melody of the piece to play his own improvisation; the notion that he is better than all the other boys there. However, despite this deviation, the white men still have control over his advancement in the composition through the use of their dominating central rhythm; blacks are to be inferior and put in their place in a white society.


Aside from the parallel of Ellison’s first chapter of Invisible Man to the technical aspects of a jazz composition, we can parallel this story to the history of jazz music. In his presentation of the narrator’s speech, Ellison introduces the black social debate. The speech, placed after the “Battle Royal,” is Ellison’s way of questioning and critiquing it’s beliefs. More specifically, he criticizes the optimistic social program of the black educator and writer Booker T. Washington. Although the narrator doesn’t directly name Washington in the speech, his speech contained quotations from Washington’s Atlanta Exposition Address of 185. He believed that blacks should stay away from trying to gain political and civil rights, but to focus on achieving economic success. He believed that if blacks worked hard enough, they would be granted equality by the white men. The history of jazz music parallels Ellison’s introduction of the black social debate.


As a way to cope with the hard labor, slaves would sing “work songs” to break up the monotony of their work. It was also a way that the slaves retained their roots, since slaveholders usually actively sought to destroy any allegiance to their former country. Eventually, from these “social songs,” there was a progression into new rhythms and melodies, and soon jazz music started to become a expressive genre of music as we know it today. In the birth of jazz music, the majority, if not all the musicians were black. The South had a long tradition of both slaves and free black musicians entertaining audiences of both races. Jazz music, music with black origin, was accepted and enjoyed by the white population. If such music was accepted by the white population, did they accept blacks into their society? Could this music be a passive way into which blacks could eventually gain acceptance and equality in a white supremacy society? Obviously, the course of history proved that even in the birth of jazz music, and the acceptance of this music by the white population, the people of this music were not accepted as equals to the whites.


We can see that there are parallels between the technical aspects of jazz music to Ellison’s story, as well as the history of jazz to Ellison’s allegorical references and symbolism. Many critics have compared Ellison’s writing to jazz music, and they do it rightfully so. All art forms somehow influence one another, whether it is cinema and literature, or literature and music, the list can go on. We have seen such influences of jazz music in Ellison’s writing more importantly, parallels of jazz music in Ellison’s “Battle Royal” of Invisible Man.


References


Ellison, Ralph. “Battle Royal” Invisible Man. New York; Random House, Inc., 18


Websites


www.allaboutjazz.com/timeline.htm


http//historymatters.gmu.edu/d/


www.jass.com





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The Great Depression

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The Great Depression


The Great Depression was one of the worst economic slumps ever when business was poor and a vast amount of people was out of work. It spread all over the industrialized world. Starting in 1, the Great Depression lasted almost a decade. The period was the longest and worst period of high unemployment and low business activity in modern times. Millions of Americans were jobless, penniless, and homeless. People depended on the government and charity to provide food.


Many factors lead to the Great Depression. The main cause was the unequal distribution of wealth between the higher and lower classes. This misdistribution in the 10’s existed on many levels. Also, stock market speculation took place later in the decade. This kept the market artificially high, and eventually this lead to large market crashes. The misdistribution of wealth and the stock market crashes caused the American economy to capsize. It was then that the Great Depression officially began.


Life was very difficult during the Great Depression. People had to do without the luxuries of life. Sales of furniture, household appliances, jewelry, and candy virtually ceased. Styles in fashion became simpler as families brought in less cash. Gardens were planted in vacant lots. Families lost their homes and went to live in the bitter streets where no comforts could be found. Many lost their jobs and could not afford food to feed their families or themselves. Thousands of investors lost everything. Entire crops were wasted, as the farmers could not sell their goods. The Depression spread worldwide and affected many nations. World trade decreased as countries struggled to protect their own industries.


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President Herbert Hoover held office at the beginning of the Great Depression. Almost every month the economy continued to slump with no signs of getting better. In 1, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected President of the United Stated. Not long after his election, Roosevelt launched what was known as the New Deal. The New Deal had several reforms. It gave the government more power and helped ease the depression. Eventually, World War II began because of German and Japanese militarism. Many nations increased their production of war materials. This gave people jobs and put large quantities of money into circulation. These events ended the Great Depression.


In October 1, one of the most devastating slumps in business activity known as the Great Depression began. Buying and selling stopped, production of goods declined, and unemployment raised sky high. Some nations changed not only their leaders but also their type of government. Nations raised tariffs on imported goods in attempt to protect their own industries. This period of economic instability went on for almost a decade. It finally ended when the beginning of World War II provided jobs for the millions of unemployed Americans.





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Tuesday, December 27, 2011

How the structure of a company can influence its relationships

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“Structuring your organisation is very crucial for success, you need to take divisions of work and organise them into logical groupings. You need to link the hierarchy, levels of authority and responsibility to create formal channels of communication, which will set the foundation for good relationships.” (L. Bolton 18)


There are many different company structures, each with its’ own set of benefits, which can be applied to different industries. However having the wrong structures for a specific business could have adverse effects resulting in loss in communication, which ultimately will lead to bad relationships within the company where in any industry is very harmful.


All companies have a specific organisational structure. The most common structures are functional, matrix, divisional for what reason a company may adopt one structure over another may depend on the size, manageability, and what the company is focused on in means of wether they are human resource, marketing, product, or customers focused (L. A. Ray 001). Therefore obviously different industries will have different organisational structures, but in all cases they are used to help increase communication and productivity within the company in which they are instituted.


Small business’s and firms, which produce a low level of goods and services, have a simple organisational structure that when modelled has very flat and wide span of control, Low in departmentalisation and quite team based orientated with little formalisation. This structure reduces duplication of activities within a firm and is not difficult to co-ordinate, which is normally adopted by small companies (D. Rollinson). This structure works well in caf�s, dairies, and low production industries because of there share size and manageability. Also there is no need for departmentalisation, although it wouldn’t erect any barriers for communication, it’s because not many specific jobs or problems that requires a person or team to focus on entirely.


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The simple structure where activities are mutually co-ordinated improves the way these small businesses are run and communication is made easy due to the one manager/owner controlling all operations of the business. Employees also have the ability to correspond freely to the manager/owner with no loss in time. The free flowing communication between the employees and the manager/owner of a small business enhances the ability to create and maintain good relationships within the business such as in a caf� industry. In a simple structure if manager finds he has a problem or an enquiry he can tell/ask his staff directly as there is no barriers in communication. Likewise with the employees they can just as easily talk to the manager about problems without any dilemmas (S. Gröschl, L. Doherty 1). Yet in bigger corporations you couldn’t apply the same structure and get the same result normally there is a need to specialise.





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Civilian Morale on the homefront

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What factors influenced civilian morale on the home fronts?


During World War Two, the moral of all countries involved remained intact. There were numerous factors that influenced the morale of civilians on the various home fronts. The intensity and importance of each nation’s struggle with morale was strongly influenced by the regime they were subject to. The subsequent policies and actions of the governments had significant impacts on their nation’s morale. Propaganda, threats and terror all contributed to the disillusionment of civilians or succeeded in fostering their drive and dedication to their nation’s war effort. Bombing of civilian’s was intended to cause chaos and loss of will on the home front. However, by doing this, they brought war to a nation’s doorstep, and the civilian population rallied together in their time of suffering. The bombing was a major contributor in fostering their determination to win the war. For those countries more directly involved in the conflict, there was immense suffering through hefty restrictions and limited supplies. The imposition of restrictions through rationing and government control failed to lower morale in Britain, the United States and initially in Germany. The home fronts were a hive of activity during the war as there was mass mobilisation of industry and work for the war effort. This influenced moral as the population and importantly women were effectively contributing to the war effort. In this way, everyone had the opportunity to be involved in their nation’s fight.


Civilian morale was strongly influenced by the regime or democracy the people were subject to. In particular, leaders during the Second World War had a strong impact on influencing civilian morale. After Germany’s success in Blitzkrieg, Britain was the only remaining democracy left in Europe, therefore the only free country in Europe. Leaders during the war had to be inspiring, be justifiable in their actions, encouraging in the war effort and arouse nationalism in their nation’s fight for victory. British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill inspired a nation to mobilise for total war and break class barriers as the nation united in its fight for justice against the Germans. Churchill was a great communicator and speaker who aroused the population to be enthusiastic and united in their countries war effort.


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As with many cases in Germany, it is hard to examine just how high or low morale was, simply because under the dictatorship of Hitler, discontent did not have a voice. Initially, Hitler enjoyed huge support from the civilian population. Hitler’s system of mass propaganda and early conquests throughout Europe ensured that morale was high. However, weaknesses in Hitler’s leadership evolved and news to the cruel side of Hitler spread to the German population. German’s then began question their faith in their ‘great’ leader and his ideology. Subsequently, German’s began questioning themselves and the country they were supporting. In Europe, not all totalitarian regimes functioned in the same manner the. While Hitler initially had the luxury of being more careful and conscious of pampering his people, Stalin did not have that kind of leeway.


The Russians were under the totalitarian dictatorship of Stalin, who became the symbol of popular feelings during the war . In the struggle for survival the Russians worked as unified people, largely because they were forced to under Stalin’s regime. Stalin’s broadcast to the Soviet people on July 141 ‘raised the morale of a whole country’ as the dictator addressed the civilians as his ‘brothers and sisters’ and his ‘comrades and citizens’ . The Russians were very patriotic and had passion in their own soil and pride to defend it at all costs.


Meanwhile, even in a democracy, there was civilian suffering inflicted through the implementation of government policies that affected morale. The civilians who suffered the most in America throughout the war were the 17 000 Japanese Americans who were forced to live in concentration camps. The ever popular US President, Franklin Roosevelt led the American people into war against Germany and Japan. Roosevelt’s presence, speeches and reasoning during the war ensured he had the support of the American people. He had an aura about him that made the American people feel they were a part of a noble and essential cause during the war effort.


Propaganda and the system of terror was a major factor that influenced civilian morale. Headed by the fanatical Joseph Goebbels, propaganda in Germany found a way into every part of the civilian’s lives through radio, newspapers and countless mass Nazi demonstrations involving public appearances of Hitler. Morale was maintained through this propaganda because it showcased Nazi supremacy, Nazi films and music. It allowed the people to feel normal by being able to watch films, etc, even if it was all tightly Nazi controlled. Terror was a prominent part of the Nazi regime as they forced silence on all opposition with the use of the Gestapo and SS. Morale in Germany was weak when one sees that people lived in fear of voicing any opinion or protest.


The Soviet people suffered under Stalin’s harsh dictatorship, however, during war, the Soviet people accepted their position in life and adjusted to it. Stalin enforced Total war and all work and resources were poured into the war effort through exhaustive working conditions and fear of punishment. Patriotism, political conviction, kinship, determination to liberate their native region, hatred for the enemy, desire for revenge and to survive united the Russians and kept morale high .


Bombing of cities was intended to break morale, however, at no stage during the war was civilian morale destroyed by bombing campaigns. The Battle of Britain which involved German bombing of Britain, and in particular London, was intended to break the British people’s morale and establish the base for a German invasion. Class barriers were reduced and people were united by the destruction and suffering that the bombing inflicted . The Blitz and subsequent evacuations were a severe test of morale, however the mixing of classes ultimately brought the Brits closer together and effectively morale was strengthened by the bombing, not broken. The Battle of Britain was to affect Brits at the highest level. During the course of the bombing, over 1.4 million people were left homeless. Meanwhile it failed to stop the functioning of daily routine and work in production factories. Regulatory meant familiarity and this routine would continue to operate before and after every raid. The bombing was so intense that there was rarely a twenty-four hour period in which there was no air raid in Britain . Bombing of cities strengthened people’s determination, established a sense of togetherness and through being directly involved in the conflict, aroused a stronger nationalism and justification in their war effort.


The British bombing of Germany was a constant reminder to the German’s that Britain was still very much in the war, and that the US were growing closer to forming an alliance against Germany. Bombing raids were directed at the civilian population in Germany from Britain, the USSR and later the US. The British ‘area bombing’ of German cities was intended to destroy German morale and create widespread destruction and devastation. This was achieved in 14 during three days of raids on Hamburg that killed over 40 000 civilians, largely through fires from the bombs. There were .6 million homes destroyed, 7.5 million were made homeless, over 00 000 people killed during the course of allied bombing of the German home front.


Restrictions and rationing during the war strongly influenced the home fronts morale. Naturally, during periods of war, simple luxuries were limited and in many cases eliminated from daily life as nation’s focused their spending and effort into war production.


World War Two in Britain has become famously known as “the People’s War”. Initially, there was the fear that during the course of the war, Brits would be deeply deprived of food and essential items, especially the poor. However, the Government introduced rationing in 140 which was fair as it ensured everyone received the same amount of food. Morale boosters were often made available in the form of luxury items while entertainment, shows, films, etc were still available to provide a sense of normality and maintain morale. The Government continued to ensure all was fair in Britain as it controlled rationing, wages, prices, etc. In fact, the general standard of health improved in Britain. There were, of course, fluctuations in morale. Hardships and absence of what were previously considered essentials were a part of everyday life. Shortages on pre-war essentials are exemplified by the fact that each person was rationed to only one new shirt every twenty months. Socially, divorce and crime rates rose, illegitimacy rose ten fold and there was still the presence of strikes and class resentment. The conscription of civilians to work on the railways, in mines and other areas of essential employment also caused anger and frustration.


Rationing was introduced in the US in 14, including sufficient food for the population. It was frustrating for Americans in the sense that they had sufficient money and money to purchase items, however consumer items were not so readily available. Americans were encouraged to conserve all items, including dripping (fat), sheet metal, any materials, etc. In many cases, people would speak of a sense of ‘togetherness’ and work as a unified nation for a great cause.


Hitler hoped to establish and maintain high morale in Germany through maintaining pre war living standards throughout the country. Rationing was minimised, as was mobilisation and conscription of workers into the war effort. A sense of normality was achieved throughout Germany for a period of time as morale remained high throughout a series of German conquests in Europe. However, the Nazi’s ability to maintain normality on the home front lasted only a short time as domestic shortages became the norm. In the latter years of the war, the food situation was so bad that people would be found scrounging around forests looking for food. The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 141 began to put pressure on the home front as stepped-up production of armaments increased, the desire for a short war had faded into a dream .


The Russians suffered severely, living in a country that was one third under Soviet control. Food was in short supply, with poor rationing that favoured the already deprived military while the rest of Russian civilians were even greater deprived. German invaders took most food supplies. The harsh Russian winters resulted in civilians falling prey to sickness and disease, the state subsequently provided over 50 million inoculations against fevers. Hunger, cold, malnutrition and disease were as great as the German threat to the survival of the USSR .


Information detailing casualty numbers on the battle front had a significant influence on the civilian morale on the home front. Death on the battle front conveyed to civilians the devastation and destruction of human life during war. Meanwhile, victories on the battlefield were a turning point in strengthening the nation’s morale; as people were optimistic and that battles won would result in a war won. The arrival of casualties and with them the stories of the horrors of the war brought to civilians the reality of the suffering of war and cemented the losses and destruction involved.


The worsening of the situation on the German home front in the later years of the war exemplifies the degree to which morale is affected by the thrust of defeat and war stories. As the war continued, those left on the home front were faced with the death of family members fighting on the two fronts. Death in families was an all too common occurrence on all home fronts. The Nazi’s tried to keep the civilians oblivious to the sufferings and poor treatment on the battlefront, particularly in and around Stalingrad. However, silence and lack of communication resulted in increased misconstrued information reaching the population.


The major powers including Germany, Great Britain, the USSR and the US mobilised for Total war. This involved the mobilisation and conscription of not only soldiers, but of workers on the home front. Britain set new standards in the mass mobilisation of women into the workforce in roles that were previously not available to women. Women were involved in not only volunteer work, but work that was normally male dominated including tram driving, factory work with over ninety percent of munitions workers being women and 80 000 women in the Women’s Land Army. It was compulsory for all women between the ages of eighteen and sixty to register for work which was largely factory work at the many munitions factories. In 141, women were even enlisted in the armed forces, the Women’s Auxiliary Forces including 7 500 women in the Women’s Royal Naval Service and 18 000 women in the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force. Morale amongst British society increased as women were given the opportunity to effectively participate in the war effort.


Hitler’s desire to maintain consumer consumption and normality in civilian’s lives resulted in very few women becoming mobilised. In 14, Germany was declared a state of Total War, therefore the people were pressed into war work, particularly women who had previously been directed away from any harsh or different work. Therefore morale during the initial mobilisation of Germany was significantly high. However, sudden changes during the latter years of war saw disruption and disorder.


Civilians in America were affected dramatically differently from the Europeans as they were distant from the conflict. While the European countries hit economic bottom, the US economy thrived during the war as the civilian economy expanded. Fifteen million people entered the armed forces and ten million extra were added to the labour force as unemployment was a scarcity. The workforce generally received higher wages. Although on a smaller scale to some of the European countries, women did enter the workforce in America on the largest scale the country had ever seen during the war years. The proportion of women in the workforce rose from 5 per cent to 6 per cent during the war . Black Americans continued to be discriminated against in the workforce and military, however, small advances were made in their position in society and the workforce. Therefore through advancements and the lifting of some restrictions, high levels of civilian morale were evident in most areas of American society.


From beginning to end, war in the USSR was Total war where the line of separation between soldiers and civilians virtually disappeared. The Soviets were conscripted into factory and munitions work, while all able-bodied men were conscripted into the armed forces. The German invasion of Russia left the country in a desperate situation. The German’s inflicted harsh treatment toward the Soviets including Russian Jews being sent to extermination camps, used as slave labor, while captured soldiers were sent to prisoner of war camps to starvation and ill-treatment. Russians endured harsh conditions that involved mass suffering yet morale was always in tact to a significant degree.


Therefore it is clear that there were a range of factors that contributed to civilian morale during the Second World War. Policies and inspiration by each nations government was influential in contributing to the civilian population’s morale. The destruction inflicted by area bombing of cities failed to achieve its goal of destroying morale. Restrictions and rationing affected civilian’s attitude to the war both negatively and positively. Mobilisation of civilians into war work fostered a sense of nationalism and therefore had an effect on morale. Clearly the above factors all influenced morale in the US, USSR, Britain and Germany. The extent as to which each of these factors affected civilian morale was dependant upon each countries circumstances.


Bibliography


Barber, J. and Harrison, M., The Soviet Home Front 141-45 (London, 11)


Beck, E.R., The European Home Fronts 1-145 (Arlington Heights, 1)


Drosdov, G., Russia at war, 141-145 (London, 187)


Kitchen, M., Nazi Germany at War (London, 15)


Noakes, J., The Civilian in War (Exeter, 1)


Winkles, A.M., Home Front USA America During World War II (Arlington Heights, 186)








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Monday, December 26, 2011

The Difference between a Physical Educator and a Coach

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There are many differences between a physical educator and a coach. In my opinion a physical educator paid their dues to become an educator. A physical educator went to school for four or more years to be able to teach and educate what they learned and from their experience in physical education. A coach is someone that coaches little league or YMCA or some other kind of program for children and adults. In my opinion I think those coaches think they know it all because they either played ball or played that sport in high school. So they think they are coaches now. Most of the coaches are parents of their children’s team. I do believe that two heads are better than one. So I do give them credit because they bring their experience to the team. Then again this is only my opinion, I could be wrong.


Physical educators elect to teach in the nonschool setting because of the opportunity to specialize; many physical educators like the idea of teaching just one activity, such as golf, tennis, or swimming. There are several benefits in teaching physical education in the school setting. One benefit is the salary. In the year 000, the national average teacher’s salary was $41,80. Many other benefits associated with physical educators attract young people to the field. Physical educators serve as a role model to young people. From your own experience, teachers can exert a great influence on the lives of young students, contributing greatly to their development. For many young people, one great benefit to teaching physical education is that it offers them the opportunity to coach. One main difference between a physical educator and a coach is all physical educators have a teacher’s certification. Many aspiring coaches enroll in a program of study leading to a teaching certificate in physical education.


In coaching the hours are often long and arduous. The practice hours and the hours spent coaching during a competition or program take a large amount of time involved in coaching. Coaches must be able to organize their practices to provide maximum opportunities for all players to learn the skill and strategies essential for play. Coaches must provide in each athlete a feeling of self-worth and self-confidence, and be able to give advice and motivate all players to put fourth their utmost effort to achieve their goals. Coaches must be able to all ways aware and monitoring the efforts of their athletes. Salaries vary greatly depending on the level coached, the sport coached, and the coach’s position as head or assistant coach. Most coaches volunteer their help because usually their child is on the team.





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Reader centered Writng

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To Employees of X Company


From


Subject Communication Methods Policy Change


Date May 1, 00


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Our company is in the process of undergoing major changes this year. One important aspect of our business that the managers have made the decision to change is our communication process. Our objective is to change from the current business format to reader-centered writing. The purpose of reader-centered writing is to present the information your are trying to convey to the customer using an easy to understand customer oriented format. Using this new approach will help us to build communication partnerships and to build a long lasting relationship with our customer.


Need for Change


With the current state of the economy, our business shows a need to strengthen its client base. Because X Company is a customer driven service, supplying government agencies with Information Technology systems and support, we are subject to constant changes on a regular basis, whether they are client driven or company driven. The freshest approach utilized today is reader centered writing. We have analyzed our client¡¦s needs and decided that a reader-centered approach will be instrumental in accomplishing this goal. As you read the techniques of creating reader-centered material we are sure that you will enjoy using this process as your new approach to writing.


What is Reader-Centered Writing?


You are probably asking yourself, what is reader centered writing and how do I go about it? The answered to these and several other questions will be answered in this section as you read. Reader centered writing is a format where you can adapt your writing to the reader¡¦s style. This type of writing involves directing the information to your reader as opposed to the familiar ¡§business style¡¨ format which many people have trouble comprehending. Your writing will be constructed with the reader in mind and utilizing the following techniques


„h Audience. Who is the information for? What am I trying to tell them in this information? It is important to think about, first, who you are writing to and next, what you are trying to say. The person you are writing is no longer someone you are merely sending a letter, e-mail or product information brochure to, they should be thought of as an individual that, once given the information, will aide in improving our company¡¦s relationship. It is helpful to have some personal information (education, education, level of experience, etc.) about the person without breaking any of policies outlined in the employee handbook.


„h Help your client to understand why your information should matter to them and what they stand to gain as a result of the information you are giving them. When they understand how they can also benefit form your information they will become eager to read what you have written.


„h Be clear and concise in your wording. Don¡¦t play ¡§cat and mouse¡¨. Your reader will appreciate what you are saying to a greater extent by not wasting his or her time and not writing a bunch of jargon that no one can decipher.


„h Don ¡¥t make you sentences too long or use too many details. Many readers have to go back and re-read sentences that are long and drawn out or that carry too many details.


„h Be sure to use a format and structure when writing. Use headings, when possible, and pay close attention to sentence structure insuring that there are no fragments. Although our e-mails are informal, you should always spell-check any information prior to sending.


When Do We Use Reader Centered Writing?


We will begin to use the reader center in all forms of correspondence between our clients, and ourselves and in inter office correspondence. This includes, but is not limited to


„h Client correspondence


„h Information within the company


„h Business development (provided enough information is gathered about recipient)


„h E-mails


Why Do We Need Reader-Centered Writing?


We need reader centered-writing to keep up with the current trends. Today¡¦s business atmosphere is customer-driven requiring us to change our way of thinking. If we change our attitudes to be customer oriented we can build a strong business foundation and we will prosper together. As opposed to having a business-client relationship, we will have a communication partnership, where our client understands and agrees with the messages that we are trying to convey to them. When we have developed and utilized the reader centered writing method we will build a lasting relationship with our client with a promising future.











Please note that this sample paper on Reader centered Writng is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Reader centered Writng, we are here to assist you. Your cheap research papers on Reader centered Writng will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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